Nadi astrology calculator

Like TS says in his post just before mine, this nadi reading is an interesting experience - like many others in life. This is Lord Krishna's teaching in the second chapter. Keep performing your duties. Do not expect, or hanker, after the fruits of thy labor. And do not fall into the trap of inaction, i.

Indeed, what else can any janthu living creature do? All living creatures must act ceaselessly. This is how Lord Krishna contines his dialogue in the third chapter with Arjuna. I have some information on the folks near Vaideeshwaran temple who deal in Nadi Joshiyam Astrology. I will be posting the details to this site in a day or two.

Long long ago, when my father was in his late twenties he is in his mid eighties now , he was taken by my grandfather to consult Sahadeva nadi. My father was visiting his parents at Kumbakonam then,so I presume the readings were done at Vaitheswaran Koil. According to legend, Kunti asked her youngest son Sahadev, who was a great astrologer, to predict the future of all beings and Sahadev obliged.

So the nadi would begin every reading with Kelum Thaye Kunti! My father did not say anything about thumb impression being taken. All he said was that they had to simply go there and wait and the Naadi will call them by name. When he came back it announced that my father will have a son Not sure whether my father or grandfather asked the Naadi the gender of the child my mother was carrying or whether the Naadi simply guessed what was in their minds My father and grandfather came back home only to find that my mother had miscarried!

So my father went back the next day to confront the Naadi. Once again as soon as my father came into its presence, the Naadi announced that my mother had miscarried. At another instance, my father,his younger brother and my grandfather went to the Naadi to find out if my uncle would procure a seat in a particular college. The naadi insisted that he already had.

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The naadi then went on to say that he will get to study the subject of his liking. None of them believed it, because it was past the date for seat allocation. But surprisingly my uncle did get a seat due to someone dropping out. In yet another instance, my father went with a family friend to find out about his son's careeer prospects.

His son was in the police service.

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The naadi predicted great future for that boy. However the son died the next year. Another incident my father witnessed was when a mother and her step-son came to consult the naadi. As soon as they entered the temple compound, the naadi announced that the two had illicit relationship, that the atmosphere has been polluted, and the naadi will not speak further that day until certain pujas are performed by the Naadi reader. All naadi seekers were requested to return the next day.

The mother and son quietly slipped away and later it transpired that what Naadi said about them was true. As with other people who consult Naadi, my father felt that Naadi predicts past accurately, but its performance regarding future is at best spotty. One other interesting fact.

According to my father,the Naadi readers of those days did not accept any contribution, monetary or otherwise. In fact anyone who accepted any form of contribution, would promptly lose the gift of naadi reading. The naadi would then instruct the recalcitrant reader to transfer the Olais to another person, selected by the Naadi. That said, I do not understand how the Naadi readers of today could charge high fees to read the Suvedi and not lose their prophetic gift?

Any comments? I visited this temple, in , since it was one of the places I was asked to visit based on my Nadi reading. As noted by many others, I too have found that the Nadi readings about the past are quite accurate. So, why not the future? My cobrother who introduced me to Nadi reading was told that he would suffer from severe abdominal pains and undergo surgery and also that he would be blessed with a daughter. Both predictions came true. His brother also went to the same Nadi reader. He was asked to do several pariharams atonements for sins of the past.

He had not performed any, the last I know of it. He is doing fine. The Nadi reader also made some predictions in my case.

The most important was that I would gain worldwide recognition for my work. The reading mentioned as the year in which it would happen. Needless to say, no knows who I am, to this date. To continue along the same lines as my previous post, I find a lot of interest in Nadi readings among the posters here. How about good old astrology? I have taken interest in astrology since , partly because I learned something important about ancient Vedic astrology.

In this system, they use a correction called the Ayanamsa. This is related to a very subtle astronomical phenomenon known as the precession of the equinoxes. This got me interested since, as I soon learned, Western astrologers do not use this correction. So, it appeared to me that there was much more to astrology than I had given it credit until then. I began the task of studying astrology after that to find out what it is all about. To complete the story, let me explain briefly what is meant by the precession of the equinoxes.

The equinox is the day of the year when light and day are of equal length in all parts of the globe. The sun's rays are exactly parallel to each other on this one single day for observers in every part of the globe. The period of sunlight is exactly 12 hours for a person on the equator and also for a person near the 45 degree North latitude quite close to where I now live , or the 30 degree North latitude and so on.

There are two days on which this occurs. The date of the equinox is March 21 or March 22 each year for those who live above the equator. This is the first day of spring in this hemisphere. It is also the first of autumn for those who live in the southern hemisphere. The length of the days hours of sunlight increase after the spring equinox to the summer solstice, which occurs on June 21 or June This is the longest day of the year.

The lengthening hours of sunlight was most noticeable in the higher latitudes. They are not so noticeable for those who live closer to the equator. After the summer solstice I am using northern hemispere dates , the length of the day, i. On this date in Sep again, day and night are of equal length. This the autumnal equinox. After this equinox, the hours of sunlight continue to decrease until we arrive at the shortest day on Dec 21 or Dec 22, in the northern hemisphere. Then the length of the days increase until we reach the spring equinox on March One cycle has thus been completed and the earth has completed one orbit around the sun.

One year has elapsed according to our reckoning. Now what exactly is the precession of the equinox. On the dates that I have given above for the spring equinox, the sun is supposed to be located at the starting point of the zodiac. This is the zero point of an imaginary circle in the heavens within which we find the sun, moon, and the planets when we make observations. This imaginary circle part of the large spherical dome called the sky is divided into 12 equal parts of 30 degrees each. Each 30 degree segment is a sign of the zodiac. The sun is supposed to enter the 0 degree of Aries on the date of the spring equinox, in the Northern hemisphere.

But, if you are an astronomer and look in the sky, you will find that the sun is not at 0 degree of Aries. The sun is still actually in the previous sign, Pisces. It moves into Aries, much later, in April. So Western astronomers laugh when they see the astrological charts made by the Western astrologers. The charts are nonsense since the astrologer, it appears, does not even know the position of the sun, the moon, or the planets.

This is also the reason why most scientists, especially those in the West, are careful not to associate themselves with these jokers called astrologers. I came from the same school of thought, being a Western educated person of Indian origin. I had given no great thought or credence to astrological predictions. Then I found out about the Ayanamsa correction which Vedic astrologers still use.

This correction accounts for the drift in the position of the equinox. Most Western educated scientists have no idea about Vedic astrology and the fact that planetary position correspond to that observed in the sky, after accounting for the precession of the equinoxes.

I read the post regarding nadi astrology today. I had been to one nadi astrologer recently. He told me my past correctly but he was very vague in future predictions. Before me my father had visited the same astrologer. He told my father about his daughter's life i. I respect the nadi astrology, no doubt but then too sensitive people should not go for it Dont u think this hampers our growth? I am really confused about the nadi astrologers prediction b'coz i am going thru rough patch in my life and dont want to believe whatever the nadi astrologer has predicted b'coz we all live our lives on hope.

Yes, one should not take the nadi readings about the future too seriously. If so, why take the predictions of the past seriously. Unfortunately, the past predictions are often accurate. The best course then, in my humble opinion, is to persevere and perform your duties. Learn from your past, as predicted by the nadi. But perform your duties and do not expect anything. That is what the Bhagavad Gita teaches us, as I have noted in an earlier post. I recently got this urge to check my Naadi reading. My father got his reading done when he was in his early twenties.

Even to this day,both my mother and father remain amazed at the accuracy of the reading. The reader even predicted a good amount of my future just from my father's leaf alone which is accurate too. I would like get my reading done too. I was wondering if anyone knows about a good genuine no fakes please website which offers Naadi reading?

I cannot personally go to a Naadi reader in Tamil Nadu because I live in north america. Has anyone tried the Naadi services available through IndiaInfo Bangalore?

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Hi All, I got my Nadi read in a place in Chennai around 3 yrs back. The predictions that were made for past was exactly true. And the predictions he made for the future was also exactly correct. I was a little apprehensive whether he is saying the truth or not and he gave the leaflets that had all my kandams.. I just browsed it and also saw the kandams..

Its not entirely true that precession of equinoxes is not known in west.. Not taking ayanamsha into account can make perdictions difficult however character traits seem to however fit accurately The second issue to be considered is that transits are used heavily to give predictions and they somehow reduce the disadvantage of this ayanamsha difference I dont think western astrology is a bunch of jokers.. There is no question about that. Of course, precession of equinox has been known for more than years in the West, at the very least, but the Western astrologer do not correct for it, like Vedic astrologers do.

There are many books written by Westerners who have studied Vedic astrology and by Westerner astrolgers who use what is called the tropical zodiac. Knowledge of something is one thing and the use of it another. These two matters should not be confused. Anyway, I started paying attention to the astrology only after I learned about how Vedic astrologers use. That's really the point I was making. Until I understood the ayanamsa and the science behind it, astrology was just a lot of hokum to me.

Finally, as far as future predictions being correct, I found just general and vague statements made by two of our posters here. If it is not too personal, what is the nature of the future predictions that have been found to be true? It would be nice to know.

In my case, I can state clearly that so far they have not proved to be of any value. Of course, they were very optimistic and good and so I am still filled with a lot of hope. The following is a link to a nice article on the Precession of the Equinox. Newton talks about this phenomenon in his Principia and also provides calculations that give the exact magnitude of the precession in agreement with actual observations. The last section entitled Age of Aquarius is a good example of the general anitpathy that most Western educated individuals feel towards astrology in general.

By and large Hindus, as a group, seem to place much more faith in astrology than any other religious group. Astrology is actually scorned upon by some leading religious faiths. If you look at www. Anyway, don't get me wrong. It all depends on what you wish to accomplish from such readings. I have a strong suspicion this may be influenced by Western astrology - after the Greeks and the Europeans came to India and imposed their way of thinking. Also, nowadays, I see Vedic astrologers talking about the position of Pluto, Neptune, Uranus, in the horoscopes.

There is no mention of these planets in any of the Hindu scriptures. I respect Vedic astrology in as much as I consider it to be revealed scriptures with basis in the Vedas. If not, I really do not care. Vedic astrologer should stick to what is given in scriptural writings. To some extent, Nadi reading, although very mysterious to me, seems to have scriptural basis. So, when predictions come wrong, I look at it not as a problem with Nadi as a "science" but as a problem with the Nadi reader as an ordinary human being with limitations.

It is just like therapy and psychological counseling that is practiced widely in Western countries to help people cope with their problems in life. I feel the Vedic astrologer and Nadi reader play much the same role in Hindu society as these counselors do. May be "imposed" their way of thinking is too strong a remark as I stated in my last post.

I will take that back. I am sure there was a fruitful exchange of ideas, but in the end the Western viewpoint prevailed, since they were the rulers, afterall. So, just like other things Western that were adopted by Indians after the British came to India , I think the legacy of Alexander's invasion of India circa B.

Alexander did leave behind a general named Selyucas I may have misspelt it. He was defeated by Chandragupta Maurya and then Chandragupta married Selycas' daughter. Scholarly contacts between India and ancient Greece, of course, predate even Alexander's invasion. So, there was indeed an "exhcange" of ideas and thus, I believe, some Vedic astrologers started using the Sayana charts and adopted many other Western astrological methods.

For example, at least in the books that I have read, the exact degree of the planetary position is not that important in the Vedic astrological tradition. Even if Jupiter has just entered the 7th house say by 1 degree out of 30 degrees , he is considered to be entirely in the house. It is believed that the full benefits of Jupiter in the 7th house are felt, just as if Jupiter was centered in the 7th house.

Prince Charles' horoscope is an interesting example of this. The ayanamsa correction affects the position of Jupiter - very important for someone born to be King. But, to date, he is still not a King! It is also important for married life. Just look what he has gone through. Western astrology, on the other hand, gives a great deal of importance to exact calculations of planetary positions.

But then, alas, they don't make the ayanamsa correction for the precession of the equinoxes! This is the paradox of Western astrology, at least in my mind. A very reputed Nadi Reader Mr. Please also check their website for info. Email: omshakthi parashakthitemple. Yes, the predictions made for future were true.. And they r 2 personal to share.. They were some which were negative and some which were positive.. And till date it is happened.. And the incidents were not insignificant ones.. It brought a major change in my life. I was not even thinking abt what was told.

I completely forgot abt the readings etc. And one fine day when I recalled whatever had happened, I realized it was what was predicted by that nadi and read the book again where he had put down the scripts that was read.. Fortunately, since I am very good in Literary Tamil, I could interpret those scripts more clearly.. They had also interpreted my date of birth, time etc..

It is also true that the reader who interprets should be a qualified person, so that the interpretations he makes is correct. On the topic of the Sayana and Nirayana horoscopes, I just wanted to note that houses are numbered from the lagna ascendant. The first house is the lagna. But, first house for me can be Gemini, for you it can be Aries, for your sister or daughter it could be Cancer and so on. The property of the first house is thus affected. Although 6th house is 6th house in both Sayana and Nirayana calculations, the fact that the 6th house is Pisces in Nirayana chart and Aries in the Sayana chart is indeed important.

This cannot be overlooked. To take the example of 7th house that I noted earlier, if Jupiter is located in either Sagittarius or Pisces, Jupiter is considered to be in rulership and placed in his own house. This does make a difference, although in both cases Jupiter is in the 7th house and is also in the house in which he is in rulership. Pisces being one of the "northern" houses is considered to be a better house than Sagittarius, for Jupiter's placement. Sagittarius is one of the "southern" houses.

Hence, the properties of the two charts are different. This is called Digbala and Sthanabala, two of the six balas strengths or strong points in Vedic astrology. A chart is assessed on the basis of its six balas. As I have noted earlier, if Vedic astrology is rooted in the scriptures and in the teachings of the Vedas, I take it seriously. The ayanamsa correction of Vedic astrology also seems to be a "scientific" basis, so I take it even more seriously.

Put science and scripture together, and add faith, I take the ayanamsa correction very very seriously. Raman's book, for example, he notes how he was taught astrology by his grandfather. He taught him all the Sanskrit shlokas of Jyothisa sastra. Each shloka is a concise statement of the properties of the houses and the planets in various placements.

That is how B. Raman learned astrology. He had to memorize all the Sanskrit shlokas. That is the spirit in which I started studying Vedic astrology, after understanding the significance and scientific i. When it comes to the truth, there can be no compromise. By the way, if any one knows who is reading these posts knows or knows of someone who knows all the original Sanskrit shlokas that discuss Jyothisha sastra, I would be very glad to hear from them and learn from them.

I wish B. Raman had published the shlokas, in their original. Thanks for sharing your experience with Nadi reading. As you have noted, even to appreciate the predictions and go back and review them later like you did , one must have some gifts - such as the gift of reading literary Tamil, which you have. The same goes for the person who is doing the reading, whether it is nadi or reading a chart. Most astrologers, especially Vedic astrologers, have learned astrology by memorizing and interpreting Sanskrit shlokas, which they learned from their gurus.

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Even the nadi olais leaflets , as I understand it, were translated from Sanskrit. It appears that one of the Thanjavur kings Raja Saraboji found out about these leaflets from one of the leanred Brahmins in his court. He was also impressed by the predictions made this scholar. So, he ordered that the olais be translated into Tamil. Now, they are available to many. However, it is still something that is transmitted from one family to another and most of the nadi readers are members of the same family who learned the "art".

To repeat what I noted earlier, "Knowledge of something is one thing but the use of it is something else. Likewise, I remember forgetting things that I have learned at crucial moments and suffered the consequences. Yes its true I never said they take ayanamsha into consideration in western astrology I just said that quite a number of western astrologers today know the concept of ayanamsha but yet follow western system along with eastern system I just meant to highlight that eastern system is not great just because it takes into account ayanamsha.

There is something beyond memorizing and interpreting sanskrit slokhas.. One should have a strong power of 'Intution" to predict the past and future of others.. This cant be acheived just by memorizing or reading some slokhas. It is a spiritual Art. That is why so many astrolgers inspite of knowing the sastram fail in predicting.. Yes, I agree with you. There is much much more to being an astrologer than memorizing and "interpreting" the shlokas. Even so, that is exactly where the study and process of becoming an astrologer begins. Raman puts it very nicely in his autobiography.

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What was a good doctor do? Then this knowledge is applied after graduating from college with the MD degree. Now, a lot more is indeed when dealing with real patients. I learned the basics, just out of curiosity to satisfy myself. Does that make me a good astrologer? However, let's get back to the posts dealing with nadi astrology. I see some posters mention they are doing "research" on this topic. Such research will come to fruition only if we can get some "specific" information of the type of predictions that were successful.

To give an example from "science", Einstein's theory of relativity was accepted only because he made very specific predictions what the extent of bending of light during a total solar eclipse. Astronomers then made an attempt to test the theory by measuring the amount of bending. There was very good agreement between the prediction and the actual observation. For astrology or nadi reading to gain much more credibility, similar steps must be taken and studies conducted and the predictions tested.

This means more people must be willing to share their personal stories. This is how social science studies are conducted while witholding real names of individuals. Since studying astrology over the last several years, I have been able to confirm that there are some general rules that seem to apply universally. One is that everyone must go through the 7. These periods and when they would occur can be predicted in advance.

The person can also be warned in advance about possible adverse effects. This can be useful since the person can then prepare for such difficulties to come. I see astrology as a very useful tool for this purpose. Second, in some horoscopes, difficulties with getting an alliance I mean arranged marriages as in India are predicted. Even so, there are periods when marriage can occur and potential alliances will be presented.

This too can be predicted. The horoscope of a good friend, who is still unmarried, showed such an indication. Al Gore, who lost to the current President George Bush was going through his Saturn transits during that time. He lost the election. And unlike another famous politician of a different era, he did not come back to reclaim the Presidency.

This too could be predicted. Of course, there are astrologers who would look at the same chart and overlook these unpleasant matters and try to make contrary predictions to make someone powerful like Al Gore feel good. About 50 years ago, or even 20 years ago, Yoga was considered to be some kind of "mystic" experience in the West.

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Now, everyone accepts the benefits of yoga for both physical and mental health. A recent study even suggests that practicing yoga regularly can prevent diseases like heart attack and stroke. This conclusion was drawn based on actual observations and studies on those who were practising yoga.

A recent study even suggests beneficial effects of brushing your teeth regularly after each and every meal to avoid a heart attack. The researchers admit they don't know the real cause and effect. But, guess what, I started brushing my teeth, after each meal, since then. I have nothing to lose and everything to gain by doing this.

So, with yoga and some general types of astrological readings. The 7. The Western astrological system does not take this into account. By the way, the position of the moon must be correctly predicted for this purpose. Here the ayanamsa correction is very important. Or else, you are off by 2. I would like to see some real "scientific" studies done with nadi astrology.

I too was impressed by the fact that they were able to prepare my horoscope and predict the names of all of my family members and my wife, based on just a thumb print that was provided to locate my "olai" leaflets. This too can be beneficial to many, just like other studies that I have noted here. You simply shake your head and walk away. The same goes for the precession of the equinoxes and its implications when we try to locate the various planets, the sun, and the moon, in the sky by making actual astronomical observations. Unfortunately, not too many people know about this.

In elementary school we learn about the two motions of the sun: daily rotation in 24 hours about its own axis and the annual revolution about the sun in one year. We should be taught about the third important wobbling motion of the earth's rotational axis, which leads to the precession of the equinoxes.

If everyone knew this, there would be no question. The Western astrologer would be forced to use the same chart that the Eastern, or Vedic, astrologer uses. A trained astronomer knows how to locate all the planets in the zodiacal constellations. Today is March 17, The equinox is just a few days away.

According to the astrologer the sun will soon move to Aries. This is nonsense. The sun will not move into Aries until April 13 or If one insists what can you do? You simply shake your head in disbelief and walk away. That is what most Western astronomers do. They simply walk away from astrology and do not have anything to do with it. In his book The Astronomers Donald Smith notes that Kepler was perhaps the last astronomer who was an astrologer and the last astrologer who was an astronomer.

In several other astronomy books, where they discuss the precession of the equinoxes most of them are written by Western authors , they make a mocking reference to the astrological charts and how the planetary positions are off by one house. Before I understood the implications of the precession of the equinoxes, and also took an interest in astrology for what it is, I did not appreciate the significance of such remarks.

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Here what I have to say then. Try to convince an astronomer especially one from the West that astrology is a serious "science". They will laugh since even the position of the planets is not correctly depicted in the astrological charts prepared by the Western astrologer. It is in Libra. Yet, the Western astrologer would call you a Scorpio and attribute personality traits of a Scorpio to such an individual. The point is that with the ayanamsa correction, the position of the planets, and the sun and the moon, is correct. Now, we have at least a chance to take this "art" called astrology seriously and see if it is a "science" and if it has any predictive capabilities.

The value of so-called Western scientific methods were not accepted even in the West. Galileo was prosecuted by the Church because of of the science he preached. Ultimately, with the power of making accurate predictions, which could be tested by experimental observations, science gained credibility. In the 20th century, the Pope issued an official apology to Galileo to set the record straight.

Not that the Church accepts what everything science say, uncritically. A good example is what we are now going through with stem cell research. If Vedic astrology is to be taken seriously, it must first stand the test of common sense and accepted science. Astronomers do not hesitate to call this nonsense. And, for the same reason, I consider Vedic astrology to be superior. At least now we can make a start, to probe the unknown, with the correct planetary, sun, and moon positions, and see if there is any merit to the predictions and test them critically.

This is what every astrologer must be willing to submit to. Only then will we move from "art" and "intuition" to "science" that every one can accept. I say this based on both my scientific training and also my real life experiences which cannot be explained based on any scientific theory. Finally, I hope no ones takes this too personally including the astrologer of the Western school.

My goal here is to spark some interest and, hopefully, some good research in these topics. Also, thanks Anamika for your comments and replies. I was trying to include the following with the previous message. However, since I returned more than 60 minutes later, I was not able to edit it. Traditional or "tropical" astrologers ignore this shift due to precessional of the equinoxes. They argue that where the vernal equinox is today is not as important as where it was. They claim that the areas of sky where the sun was over 2, years ago still possess the same power and virtues. Thus Leo continues to represent strength, Aries determination and so on.

Another group, the sidereal astrologers e. Vedic astrologer , does take the shift into account, but they are largely considered mavericks by traditionalists i. In the interest of promoting proper prognostication, you can use Starry Night software to update the periods when the sun truly occupies each member of the zodiac. Armed with this knowledge, you can now stop living the wrong future. See the sidereal signs below.

Anyway, this is just an attempt to show that there are those in the West who understand astronomy, take interest in astrology but who may be unaware of the Vedic roots of sidereal astrology. Nonetheless, as this Internet article reveals, there are attempts being made to educate people about what their real zodiacal sign is. It is what the Eastern school, or Vedic astrology, reveals. It seems many of you are interested in Nadi Grantha.

I have some information that may interest you. I am 48 yr old Mechanical Engineer. I have picked up Astrology as a hobby and I am now quite conversant in conventional astrology and helping my acquaintances at times without any fee. I know K. System of Astrology thoroughly besides many more wings of this science. I have thus chased Nadi Grantha in various parts of India. I have opportunity to verify their predictions during a long span of time say around 15 to 16 yrs from till now.

Life has taken me to various ups and downs. As a result I had forced occasions when I had the audience with various Left Wing Fortune tellers also. I am therefore in position to throw a better light over the Nadi Garantha, their amazing accuracy at times and miserable failures on the other hand. Of course those would be my personal views out of my personal experiences. E-mail: shrikrishnaa indiatimes. While I was preparing for a presentation I am supposed to give next month, I came across the star map for March at the following. This map was prepared by an observatory in West Virigina.

What is interesting about this map is that the position of two important planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are marked. Jupiter is located in Virgo and you can find it on the East horizon. Saturn is located in Gemini and you can find approximately at the very center of the map. If this is where these two major planets appear in the sky, that is exactly where they must be located in any GOOD horoscope if we wish to make accurate predictions assuming astrology is a reliable science, like any other. This is the significance of the ayanamsha correction used by Vedic astrologers.

With the ayanamsha correction, the planets are correctly located in Virgo and Gemini, for a child born today. However, if no such correction is made, Jupiter would be located in Libra and Saturn would be located in Cancer. Astrology was also adopted in ancient Persia and throughout the Arab world where it was taken up by Muslims whose work found its way to Europe during the Renaissance. The ancient Chinese adopted an elaborate and intricate system of astrology that is intimately connected with various metaphysical notions such as yin and yang and wu xing.

Many Westerners are familiar with the cycle of the twelve-year cycle of animal signs in Chinese astrology, e. The most popular form of traditional Western astrology is sun sign astrology, the kind found in the horoscopes of many daily newspapers. A horoscope is an astrological forecast. The zodiac is divided into twelve zones of the sky, each named after the constellation that originally fell within its zone Taurus, Leo, etc.

The apparent paths of the Sun, the Moon, and the major planets all fall within the zodiac. Because of the precession of the equinoxes, the equinox and solstice points have each moved westward about 30 degrees in the last 2, years. Thus, the zodiacal constellations named in ancient times no longer correspond to the segments of the zodiac represented by their signs. In short, had you been born at the same time on the same day of the year 2, years ago, you would have been born under a different sign.

In fact, there should be 13 signs, not Precession of the equinox is caused by the fact that the axis of the Earth's rotation which causes day and night and the axis of the Earth's revolution around the Sun which marks the passage of each year are not parallel. This tilt also causes our seasons, a fact that Ptolemy did understand but that many people do not understand even today. He deduced this from comparisons of data taken by the ancient Sumerians 2, years before his time.

He did not understand what was pushing the precession, but he did understand the motion. We now realize that the Sun is rotating with a period of around 30 days and that this causes the Sun to bulge at the equator, which causes a torque to be exerted on the top like motion of the Earth's day and night cycle. There is also a small The modern signs as listed here are further complicated when their boundaries are those of the current constellations. A neater way of dividing the signs would be to divide the ecliptic into degree slices, as Ptolemy did, but to keep the slices centered on the star patterns.

This would make the time interval for the signs more nearly 30 days each and eliminate the [13th] sign of Ophiuchus [off ee oo' kus], but your modern sign would still differ by one sign from the tradition designations. Traditional Western astrology may be divided into tropical and sidereal. Astrologers in non-Western traditions use different systems.

The tropical, or solar, year is measured relative to the Sun and is the time between successive vernal equinoxes days, 5 hr, 48 min, 46 sec of mean solar time. The sidereal year is the time required for the Earth to complete an orbit of the Sun relative to the stars days, 6 hr, 9 min, 9. The sidereal year is longer than the tropical year because of the precession of the equinoxes, i. Sidereal astrology uses the actual constellation in which the Sun is located at the moment of birth as its basis; tropical astrology uses a degree sector of the zodiac as its basis.

Sidereal astrology is used by a minority of astrologers and bases its readings on the constellations near the Sun at the time of birth. Tropical astrology is the most popular form and it assigns its readings based on the time of the year, while generally ignoring the positions of the Sun and constellations relative to each other.

It is based on the work of Ptolemy. Ptolemy had available the resources of the vast library at Alexandria The astrological text was known as the Tetrabiblos also known as the Quadrapartitium, or Four Books , which summarized all the astrological work produced in the past by Mesopotamians and Greeks According to some astrologers, the data support the hypothesis that there is a causal connection between heavenly bodies and human events.

Appeals are made to significant correlations between astrological signs and such things as athleticism. However, a statistically significant correlation between x and y is not a sufficient condition for reasonable belief in a causal connection, much less for the belief that x causes y. Correlation does not prove causality; nevertheless, correlations are extremely attractive to defenders of astrology. Chance predicts this should be But what is the analog to the tides in a person?

We are reminded that humans begin life in an amniotic sea and the human body is 70 percent water. It may be obvious to some, but the evidence for these lunar effects is lacking. Astrologers emphasize the importance of the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, etc. There is no single moment that a person is born. The fact that some official somewhere writes down a time of birth is irrelevant. Do they pick the moment the water breaks? The moment the first dilation occurs? When the first hair or toenail peeks through?

When the last toenail or hair passes the last millimeter of the vagina? When the umbilical cord is cut? When the first breath is taken? Or does birth occur at the moment a physician or nurse looks at a clock to note the time of birth? Why is the moment of birth chosen as the significant moment rather than the moment of conception?

Other than the Sun and the Moon and an occasional passing comet or asteroid, most planetary objects are so distant from us that any influences they might have on anything on our planet are likely to be wiped out by the influences of other things here on Earth. No one would claim that in order to grasp the effect of the Moon on the tides or potatoes one must understand initial conditions of the Singularity before the Big Bang, or the positions of the stars and planets at the time the potato was harvested.

Initial conditions are less important than present conditions to understanding current effects on rivers and vegetables. Finally, astrology is probably the most widely practiced superstition and most popular Tooth Fairy science in the world today. Nevertheless, there are many who defend astrology by pointing out how accurate professional horoscopes are. Basically, to say astrology works means that there are a lot of satisfied customers.

There are a lot of satisfied customers because thanks to subjective validation , it is easy to shoehorn any event to fit a chart. To say astrology "works" does not mean that astrology is accurate in predicting human behavior or events to a degree significantly greater than mere chance. There are many satisfied customers who believe that their horoscope accurately describes them and that their astrologer has given them good advice.

Such evidence does not prove astrology so much as it demonstrates the Forer effect and confirmation bias. Good astrologers give good advice, but that does not validate astrology. There have been several studies that have shown that people will use selective thinking to make any chart they are given fit their preconceived notions about themselves and their charts.

Many of the claims made about signs and personalities are vague and would fit many people under many different signs. Yet, astrology continues to maintain its popularity, despite the fact that there is scarcely a shred of scientific evidence in its favor. Even the former First Lady of the United States, Nancy Reagan, and her husband, Ronald, consulted an astrologer while he was the leader of the free world , demonstrating once again that astrologers have more influence than the stars do. See also cosmobiology , magical thinking , Mars effect , rumpology , and How F.

Don't be surprised if we next hear from the astrologers demanding their "rightful" place in our universities. Ivan Kelly, foremost critic of astrology, sent me a copy of a troublesome article by astrologer Valerie Vaughan. Vaughan claims that astrologers are persecuted by establishment science.

That is why astrologers can't get "access to research funding. At most, it might be considered a social science. Having firmly established that astrology is a social science, she then notes that "other social sciences, such as history, are not regularly attacked for their failure to apply scientific methodology in a laboratory setting. Apparently, Ms. Vaughan does not understand that scientific methodologies can be and are regularly applied outside a lab in the social sciences. Some of these methodologies are based on logical principles such as Mill's Methods , which most astrologers do not seem to believe apply to their discipline.

Some of these methodologies involve the use of statistical analysis of data. Vaughan understands the need for statistical analysis, but does not believe the usual scientific protocols apply to astrology. She says that scientists "insist on statistical analysis using random samples. But astrology cannot be proved or disproved using random samples because astrology is based on the premise that conditions are never random.

But Vaughan has something else in mind. Those studies made the assumption. Or suppose that preliminary research does reveal some validity in astrology, but in a later attempt at replicating the results, the Moon is void of course or Neptune is rising? Of course the results will be inconclusive! This sounds like special pleading to me. Further complicating matters, she says, is that when scientists read "non-astrologers" test astrology they test parts of a person's chart. They ignore "the wholeness of a chart. Astrology is incredibly complex; there are innumerable variables which must be considered before an astrologer can confidently make a statement.

Practitioners of astrology know that no one factor, such as the Moon in Aquarius, can 'mean' anything in an absolute sense. That Aquarian Moon could be out-of-bounds, in a different house, opposed Saturn, or affected by any number of other conditions that modify its significance. Vaughan has no awareness that it is this very complexity which marks astrology as a pseudoscience.

Nothing could ever disprove it. Astrology can explain everything that happens, even contradictory events.